How Expensive is the Welfare State? [E-Book]: Gross and Net Indicators in the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX) / Willem Adema and Maxime Ladaique
Adema, Willem.
Ladaique, Maxime.
Paris : OECD Publishing, 2009
98 p. ; 21 x 29.7cm.
englisch
10.1787/220615515052
OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers ; 92
Social Issues/Migration/Health
Full Text
This paper first presents information on trends and composition of social expenditure across the OECD. Gross public social expenditure on average across OECD increased from 16% of GDP in 1980 to 21% in 2005, of which public pensions (7% of GDP) and public health expenditure (6% of GDP) are the largest items. This paper then accounts for the effects of the tax system and private social expenditure which leads to a greater similarity in social expenditure-to-GDP ratios across countries and to a reassessment of the magnitude of welfare states. After accounting for the impact of taxation and private benefits, social expenditure (1) amounts to over 30% of GDP at factor cost in Belgium, Germany, and France and (2) ranges within a few percentage points of each other in Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and the United States.