How Expensive is the Welfare State? [E-Book]: Gross and Net Indicators in the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX) / Willem Adema and Maxime Ladaique
Adema, Willem.
Ladaique, Maxime.
Paris : OECD Publishing, 2009
98 p. ; 21 x 29.7cm.
OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers ; 92
Social Issues/Migration/Health
Full Text
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245 1 0 |a How Expensive is the Welfare State?  |h [E-Book]:  |b Gross and Net Indicators in the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX) /  |c Willem Adema and Maxime Ladaique 
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300 |a 98 p. ;  |c 21 x 29.7cm. 
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490 |a OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers ;  |v 92 
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520 3 |a This paper first presents information on trends and composition of social expenditure across the OECD. Gross public social expenditure on average across OECD increased from 16% of GDP in 1980 to 21% in 2005, of which public pensions (7% of GDP) and public health expenditure (6% of GDP) are the largest items. This paper then accounts for the effects of the tax system and private social expenditure which leads to a greater similarity in social expenditure-to-GDP ratios across countries and to a reassessment of the magnitude of welfare states. After accounting for the impact of taxation and private benefits, social expenditure (1) amounts to over 30% of GDP at factor cost in Belgium, Germany, and France and (2) ranges within a few percentage points of each other in Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and the United States. 
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