The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling [E-Book] / edited by Patrick Buat-Ménard.
Buat-Ménard, Patrick, (editor)
Dordrecht : Springer, 1986
568 p. online resource.
englisch
9789400947382
10.1007/978-94-009-4738-2
NATO ASI Series, Series C: Mathematical and Physical Sciences ; 185
Full Text
Table of Contents:
  • Basic Concepts In Geochemical Modelling
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2.First Order Models
  • 2.1. First order decay reaction
  • 2.2. Instantaneous perturbation in a first order decay model
  • 2.3. First order production model
  • 3. Heterogeneous Catalysis and Enzymatic Type Reactions
  • 4. Reversible Reactions
  • 5. Model with Coupled Components in the Reservoir
  • 6. Second Order Reactions
  • 7. Periodic Fluctuations
  • 8. Coupling of Reservoirs
  • 9. Conclusions
  • Atmospheric Pathways to the Oceans
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Atmospheric Structure and Transports
  • 2.1. Boundary layer
  • 2.2. Cloud scale transport
  • 2.3. Storms and midlatitude circulation
  • 2.4. Global scale exchange
  • 3. Variability and Representativeness
  • 3.1. Seasonal and interannual variability
  • 3.2. Representativeness of observations
  • 4. Modeling of Atmospheric Transport
  • 4.1. Source identification models
  • 4.2. Mechanistic models
  • 4.3. Tropospheric chemistry system models
  • Modeling Oceanic Transport of Dissolved Constituents
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Box Models
  • 3. Advection-Diffusion Models
  • 4. Equations of Motion
  • 5. Conclusion
  • Vertical Transport of Particles within the Ocean
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Determination of the Lognormal Coefficients L, ? and of N
  • 2.1. Particle size data collection
  • 2.2. Calculation of the coefficients L, ? and N from data
  • 3. Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter Physical Properties using Lognormal coefficients
  • 3.1. Surface area concentration
  • 3.2. Mass concentration
  • 3.3. Vertical fluxes
  • 3.4. Residence time
  • 3.5. Application to the open sea
  • 4. Suspended Particulate Matter Sedimentation with Dissolution Process
  • 4.1. Sedimentation at steady state
  • 4.2. Sedimentation at non steady state
  • 5. Conclusion
  • 6. Appendix
  • 6.1. Specific properties of the lognormal law
  • 6.2. Evaluation of the lognormal coefficients
  • Air-Sea Gas Exchange Rates: Introduction and Synthesis
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Basic Principles
  • 3. Models
  • 3.1. Film model
  • 3.2. Surface renewal models
  • 3.3. Boundary-layer models
  • 4. Laboratory (Wind Tunnel) Studies
  • 4.1. Smooth surface regime
  • 4.2. Rough surface regime
  • 4.3. Breaking wave (bubble) regime
  • 5. Field Measurements
  • 5.1. Box method
  • 5.2. Dissolved gas balance method
  • 5.3. Micrometeorological techniques
  • 5.4. Natural and bomb-produced 14C
  • 5.5. The radon deficiency method
  • 5.6. Sulphur hexafluoride
  • 5.7. Summary
  • 6. Synthesis
  • 6.1. Comparison with field data
  • The Ocean as a Source for Atmospheric Particles
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The ? ?E/?r Model
  • 3. The ? ?2E/?t ?r Model
  • 4. Comparison of ? ?E/?r and W ?2E/?t ?r Models
  • 5. Oceanic Whitecap Coverage
  • 6. Global Sea-to-Air Salt Flux
  • 7. Toward a Comprehensive Marine Aerosol Generation Model
  • The Ocean as a Sink for Atmospheric Particles
  • 1. Overview
  • 2. Assessement of Wet Deposition
  • 3. Field Approach to Dry Deposition
  • 4. Accurate Deposition Measurements do not Guarantee Accurate Net Air to Sea Transfer Rates
  • 5. Relative Importance of Wet and Dry Removal Rates
  • 6. Conclusion
  • Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Interfacial Photochemistry as Factors Influencing Air-Sea Exchange Fluxes and Processes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Environmental Photochemistry
  • 2.1. Stratospheric photochemistry
  • 2.2. Homogeneous tropospheric photochemistry
  • 2.3. Heterogeneous tropospheric photochemistry
  • 2.4. Seawater photochemistry
  • 2.5. Soil photochemistry
  • 3. Interaction of Photochemistry with Air-Sea Exchange Processes
  • 3.1. Air-sea gas exchange
  • 3.2. Rainout-washout deposition processes
  • 3.3. Dry deposition
  • 3.4. Marine aerosol generation
  • 4. Summary
  • Carbon Dioxide: Its Natural Cycle and Anthropogenic Perturbation
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Natural Cycle of Carbon Dioxide
  • 2.1. Reservoirs, fluxes, residence times
  • 2.2. Air-sea exchange of CO2
  • 2.3. Regional variability of air-sea fluxes
  • 2.4. Marine carbonate chemistry
  • 2.5. The oceanic carbon cycle
  • 2.6. The cycle of oxygen
  • 3. Anthropogenic Increase of Atmospheric CO2
  • 3.1. Observations and airborne fraction
  • 3.2. Modelling the oceanic response to carbon cycle perturbations
  • 3.3. CO2 release from the terrestrial biosphere and the “missing CO2 sink”
  • 3.4. Scenarios for future CO2 concentrations
  • 3.5. Carbone isotope perturbations
  • 4. Climatic Effects of CO2 Increase
  • 5. Natural CO2 Variations
  • 5.1. Seasonal variations
  • 5.2. Correlation with El Ni?o
  • 5.3. Glacial/interglacial changes
  • CO2 Air-Sea Exchange during Glacial Times: Importance of Deep Sea Circulation Changes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Evidence from Polar Ice Cores
  • 2.1. Data
  • 2.2. Discussion: is the ocean able to absorb the missing CO2?
  • 3. Evidence from Deep Sea Sediments
  • 3.1. Data
  • 3.2. Various hypotheses explaining the sedimentary record
  • 3.3. Cadmium as a proxy-indicator for past phosphate
  • 4. Broecker’s two box Model for the CO2 Cycle
  • 5. Evidence for Deep Water Circulation during the Last Climatic Cycle
  • 5.1. Geochemical basis
  • 5.2. Glacial to interglacial contrasts
  • 5.3. Disappearance of North Atlantic Deep Water during the glacial to interglacial transition
  • 5.4. Enhanced North Atlantic Deep Wafer formation during the inception of the glaciation
  • 6. Conclusion
  • Exchange of CO and H2 between Ocean And Atmosphere
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Determination of the Supersaturation Factors of CO and H2
  • 3. Spatial and Temporal Changes of dissolved CO and H2
  • 4. Processes Sustaining CO and H2 Concentrations in Surface Water
  • 4.1. Production processes
  • 4.2. Consumption processes
  • 4.3. Transport processes
  • 5. Calculation of Fluxes by the “Laminar Film Model”
  • 6. Role of Oceans in the budget of atmospheric CO and H2
  • The Air-Sea Exchange of Low Molecular Weight Halocarbon Gases
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Gases for which the Oceans are a net Source for the Atmosphere
  • 2.1. Alkyl (mainly Methyl) halides
  • 2.2. Haloforms
  • 2.3. Other organo-halides
  • 3. Gases for which the Oceans are a net Sink for the Atmosphere
  • 4. Summary
  • Sea-Air Exchange of High-Molecular Weight Synthetic Organic Compounds
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Compounds of Interest
  • 3. Sampling/Analytical Aspects of Trace Organics
  • 4. Distribution of High Molecular Weight Organics in the Marine Environment
  • 4.1. Water and organisms
  • 4.2. Atmospheric concentrations
  • 4.3. Atmospheric deposition
  • 5. Air-Sea Exchange Mechanisms for Synthetic Organics
  • 5.1. Dry deposition
  • 5.2. Wet deposition
  • 5.3. Adsorption and partitioning in surface waters
  • 6. Air-Sea Fluxes in the North Pacific
  • 7. Relative Importance of Atmospheric Deposition to the CHC Cycle
  • 8. Summary and Conclusions
  • The Ocean as a Source of Atmospheric Sulfur Compounds
  • 1. Sources of Sulfur to the Atmosphere: an Overview
  • 2. Seaspray and the Production of Aerosol Sulfate
  • 3. Sulfate Reduction by Geological and Biological Processes
  • 4. Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction
  • 5. Biosynthesis of Dimethylsulfide
  • 6. Marine Chemistry and Distribution of Dimethylsulfide
  • 7. Estimating the Air/Sea Flux of Dimethylsulfide
  • 8. Chemical Reactions and Transformations of Dimethylsulfide in the Marine Atmosphere
  • 9. A Model of the Cycle of Biogenic Sulfur over the Oceans
  • 10. Carbonyl Sulfide
  • 10.1. Photochemical production of COS
  • 10.2. Air/Sea exchange of COS
  • 11. Formation and Emission of other Sulfur Species: Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbon Disulfide, Methylmercaptan, Dimethyldisulfide etc…
  • 11.1. Hydrogen sulfide
  • 11.2. Carbon disulfide
  • 11.3. Methylmercaptan, dimethyldisulfide and other sulfur compounds
  • 12. Conclusion
  • Cycling of Mercury Between the Atmosphere and Oceans
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Global Models
  • 3. Physico-Chemical Models
  • 4. Atmospheric Hg Determinations
  • 4.1. Total gaseous Hg
  • 4.2. Volatile Hg species
  • 5. Hg Analysis in Seawater and Rainwater
  • 5.1.
  • Reactive and Total Hg
  • 5.2. Volatile Hg
  • 5.3. Determinations of Hg in rain
  • 6. Air-Sea Exchange of Hg
  • 6.1. Preliminary studies
  • 6.2. Present status
  • 6.3. Summary
  • 7. Ocean Sources of Hg
  • 7.1. Hg evasion from the Equatorial Pacific Ocean: 1980
  • 7.2. Hg evasion from the Equatorial Pacific Ocean: 1984
  • 8. Hg Deposition to the Sea Surface
  • 8.1. Precipitation
  • 8.2. Dry depositional Hg flux to the Equatorial Pacific Ocean
  • 8.3. Air-sea exchange in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean
  • 8.4. Physico-chemical aspects
  • 9. Atmospheric Cycling of Hg over the Oceans: Global Perspectives
  • The Air-Sea Exchange of Particulate Organic Matter: The Sources and Long-Range Transport of Lipids in Aerosols
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Background
  • 2. Sampling and Analytical Methodology
  • 3. Source and Long-Range Transport Studies
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. North Pacific Trades: Enewetak
  • 3.3. South Pacific Westerlies: New Zealand
  • 3.4. Short-Range transport: Coastal Peru
  • 4. Conclusions
  • The Marine Mineral Aerosol
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Concept of the Marine Dust Veil
  • 3. Sources of Material to the Marine Atmosphere
  • 4. The Distribution of Material in the Marine Dust Veil
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. The Atlantic Ocean and surrounding waters
  • 4.3. The Mediterranean
  • 4.4. The Pacific ocean
  • 4.5. The Indian ocean
  • 4.6. Summary
  • 5. The Composition of Material in the Marine Dust Veil
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. The mineral composition of the marine dust veil
  • 5.3. Chemical chacacteristics of the mineral aerosol
  • 6. The Influence of the Marine Dust Veil on Oceanic Cycles
  • 6.1. The water column
  • 6.2. The sediment column
  • 6.3. Summary
  • Air to Sea Transfer of Anthropogenic Trace Metals
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Fate of Atmospheric Trace Metals in Ocean Waters
  • 2.1. Physical and chemical forms of metals in the atmosphere
  • 2.2. Biogeochemical cycling of trace metals in the ocean
  • 3. Geographical Variability of Metal Fluxes from the Atmosphere.