Scientific method in brief [E-Book] / Hugh G. Gauch, Jr.
Gauch, Hugh G., (author)
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2012
1 online resource (xvii, 288 pages)
englisch
9781107019621
9781139095082
9781107666726
Full Text
Table of Contents:
  • 1.Introduction
  • Gateway into science
  • Controversial idea
  • AAAS position on method
  • Science as a liberal art
  • Benefits and challenges
  • Personal experience
  • Seven streams
  • Historical and future outlook
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 2.Four bold claims
  • Rationality
  • Truth
  • Objectivity
  • Realism
  • Science and common sense
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 3. Brief history of truth
  • Most elemental question
  • Aristotle
  • Augustine
  • Medieval scholars
  • Modern scholars
  • Water
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 4.Science's contested rationality
  • Science's auditors
  • Elusive truth
  • Theory-laden data
  • Incommensurable paradigms
  • Empty consensus
  • Reactions from scientists
  • AAAS posture
  • Clear targets
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 5.Science's presuppositions
  • Historical perspective on presuppositions
  • PEL model of full disclosure
  • Implementation of presuppositions
  • Contents note continued: Induction lost and regained
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 10.Parsimony and efficiency
  • Historical perspective on parsimony
  • Preview of basic principles
  • Curve fitting
  • Crop yields
  • Crime rates
  • Explanation of accuracy gain
  • Philosophical reflection
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 11.Case studies
  • Philosophy
  • Electronic engineering
  • Biochemistry and pharmacology
  • Medicine
  • Sociology
  • Economics
  • Law
  • Discussion
  • Study questions
  • 12.Ethics and responsibilities
  • Philosophical ethics
  • Professional ethics
  • Discussion
  • Study questions
  • 13.Science education
  • Typical NOS concepts
  • Better comprehension
  • Greater adaptability
  • Greater interest
  • More realism
  • Better researchers
  • Better teachers
  • Academic NOS concepts
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 14.Conclusions
  • Motion and rationality
  • Summary of scientific method
  • Exit questions.
  • Contents note continued: Science's worldview forum
  • Justification of knowledge claims
  • Review of functions
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 6.Science's powers and limits
  • Rather obvious limitations
  • The sciences and worldviews
  • Empirical method in the humanities
  • Individual experience and worldviews
  • Logical roles and diagnoses
  • Review of boundaries
  • Personal rewards from science
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 7.Deductive logic
  • Deduction and induction
  • Historical perspective on deduction
  • Propositional logic
  • Predicate logic
  • Arithmetic
  • Common fallacies
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 8.Probability
  • Probability concepts
  • Four requirements
  • Probability axioms
  • Bayes's theorem
  • Probability distributions
  • Permutations and combinations
  • Probability fallacies
  • Summary
  • Study questions
  • 9.Inductive logic and statistics
  • Historical perspective on induction
  • Bayesian inference
  • Frequentist inference
  • Bayesian decision