Practical physics [E-Book] / G.L. Squires.
Squires, G. L., (author)
Fourth edition.
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2001
1 online resource (xi, 212 pages)
englisch
9780521770453
9781139164498
9780521779401
Full Text
Table of Contents:
  • 1
  • Object of practical physics
  • 1
  • Part 1
  • Statistical Treatment of Data
  • 2.1
  • Importance of estimating errors
  • 5
  • 2.2
  • Systematic and random errors
  • 6
  • 2.3
  • Systematic errors
  • 8
  • 3
  • Treatment of a single variable
  • 9
  • 3.2
  • Set of measurements
  • 10
  • 3.3
  • Distribution of measurements
  • 10
  • 3.4
  • Estimation of [sigma] and [sigma subscript m]
  • 14
  • 3.5
  • Gaussian distribution
  • 18
  • 3.6
  • Integral function
  • 19
  • 3.7
  • Error in the error
  • 22
  • 3.8
  • Discussion of the Gaussian distribution
  • 22
  • Summary of symbols, nomenclature, and important formulae
  • 24
  • 4
  • Further topics in statistical theory
  • 27
  • 4.1
  • Treatment of functions
  • 27
  • 4.2
  • Straight line
  • method of least squares
  • 30
  • 4.3
  • Straight line
  • points in pairs
  • 36
  • 4.4
  • Weighting of results
  • 37
  • Summary of equations for the best straight line by the method of least squares
  • 39
  • 5
  • Common sense in errors
  • 43
  • 5.1
  • Error calculations in practice
  • 43
  • 5.2
  • Complicated functions
  • 46
  • 5.3
  • Errors and experimental procedure
  • 48
  • Summary of treatment of errors
  • 50
  • Part 2
  • Experimental Methods
  • 6
  • Some laboratory instruments and methods
  • 55
  • 6.2
  • Metre rule
  • 55
  • 6.3
  • Micrometer screw gauge
  • 57
  • 6.4
  • Measurement of length
  • choice of method
  • 58
  • 6.5
  • Measurement of length
  • temperature effect
  • 61
  • 6.6
  • Beat method of measuring frequency
  • 62
  • 6.7
  • Negative feedback amplifier
  • 64
  • 6.8
  • Servo systems
  • 67
  • 6.9
  • Natural limits of measurement
  • 69
  • 7
  • Some experimental techniques
  • 73
  • 7.1
  • Rayleigh refractometer
  • 73
  • 7.2
  • Measurement of resistivity
  • 79
  • 7.3
  • Absolute measurement of the acceleration due to the Earth's gravity
  • 86
  • 7.4
  • Measurement of frequency and time
  • 94
  • 7.5
  • Global Positioning System
  • 98
  • 8
  • Experimental logic
  • 102
  • 8.2
  • Apparent symmetry in apparatus
  • 102
  • 8.3
  • Sequence of measurements
  • 103
  • 8.4
  • Intentional and unintentional changes
  • 104
  • 8.5
  • Drift
  • 105
  • 8.6
  • Systematic variations
  • 106
  • 8.7
  • Calculated and empirical corrections
  • 109
  • 8.8
  • Relative methods
  • 111
  • 8.9
  • Null methods
  • 113
  • 8.10
  • Why make precise measurements?
  • 114
  • 9
  • Common sense in experiments
  • 117
  • 9.1
  • Preliminary experiment
  • 117
  • 9.2
  • Checking the obvious
  • 118
  • 9.3
  • Personal errors
  • 119
  • 9.4
  • Repetition of measurements
  • 119
  • 9.5
  • Working out results
  • 121
  • 9.6
  • Design of apparatus
  • 122
  • Part 3
  • Record and Calculations
  • 10
  • Record of the experiment
  • 125
  • 10.2
  • Bound notebook versus loose-leaf
  • 125
  • 10.3
  • Recording measurements
  • 126
  • 10.4
  • Down with copying
  • 126
  • 10.5
  • Diagrams
  • 127
  • 10.7
  • Aids to clarity
  • 130
  • 10.8
  • Some common faults
  • ambiguity and vagueness
  • 131
  • 11
  • Graphs
  • 133
  • 11.1
  • Use of graphs
  • 133
  • 11.2
  • Choice of ruling
  • 137
  • 11.3
  • Scale
  • 137
  • 11.4
  • Units
  • 138
  • 11.5
  • Some hints on drawing graphs
  • 138
  • 11.6
  • Indicating errors
  • 141
  • 11.7
  • Sensitivity
  • 142
  • 12
  • Arithmetic
  • 144
  • 12.1
  • Arithmetic is important
  • 144
  • 12.2
  • Computers
  • 144
  • 12.3
  • Calculators
  • 145
  • 12.4
  • Ways of reducing arithmetical mistakes
  • 145
  • 12.5
  • Checking algebra
  • 148
  • 13
  • Writing a paper
  • 152
  • 13.2
  • Title
  • 152
  • 13.4
  • Plan of paper
  • 153
  • 13.5
  • Sections of paper
  • 153
  • 13.6
  • Diagrams, graphs, and tables
  • 155
  • 13.8
  • Clarity
  • 156
  • 13.9
  • Good English
  • 156
  • A Evaluation of some integrals connected with the Gaussian function
  • 161
  • B
  • Variance of s[superscript 2] for a Gaussian distribution
  • 164
  • C
  • Straight line
  • the standard error in the slope and intercept
  • 166
  • Comment on the dependence of m, c, and b
  • 170
  • D
  • Binomial and Poisson distributions
  • 171
  • Binomial distribution
  • 171
  • Poisson distribution
  • 173
  • E
  • X[superscript 2] distribution
  • test of goodness of fit
  • 176
  • Derivation of x[superscript 2] distribution
  • 177
  • Function P[subscript n](x[superscript 2])
  • 180
  • Degrees of freedom
  • 181
  • Test of goodness of fit
  • 182
  • Worked examples
  • 184
  • F
  • SI units
  • 188
  • Names and symbols
  • 189
  • Decimal factors
  • 190
  • Relation to c.g.s. units
  • 190
  • Definition of the SI base units
  • 191
  • G
  • Values of physical constants
  • 192
  • H
  • Mathematical tables
  • 193
  • Values of the Gaussian function and the Gaussian integral function
  • 193
  • Values of x[superscript 2] for given v and P
  • 194.