This title appears in the Scientific Report : 2014 

Improved Characterization of Fine-Texture Soils Using On-Ground GPR Full-Waveform Inversion
Busch, Sebastian (Corresponding Author)
van der Kruk, Jan / Vereecken, Harry
Agrosphäre; IBG-3
IEEE transactions on geoscience and remote sensing, 52 (2014) 7, S. 3947 - 3958
New York, NY IEEE 2014
Journal Article
Modelling and Monitoring Terrestrial Systems: Methods and Technologies
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Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) uses the recording of electromagnetic waves and is increasingly applied for a wide range of applications. Traditionally, the main focus was on the analysis of the medium permittivity since estimates of the conductivity using the far-field approximation contain relatively large errors and cannot be interpreted quantitatively. Recently, a full-waveform inversion (FWI) scheme has been developed that is able to reliably estimate permittivity and conductivity values by analyzing reflected waves present in on-ground GPR data. It is based on a frequency-domain solution of Maxwell's equations including far, intermediate, and near fields assuming a 3-D subsurface. Here, we adapt the FWI scheme for on-ground GPR to invert the direct ground wave traveling through the shallow subsurface. Due to possible interference with the airwaves and other reflections, an automated time-domain filter needed to be included in the inversion. In addition to the obtained permittivity and conductivity values, also the wavelet center frequency and amplitude return valuable information that can be used for soil characterization. Combined geophysical measurements were carried out over a silty loam with significant variability in the soil texture. The obtained medium properties are consistent with Theta probe, electromagnetic resistivity tomography, and electromagnetic induction results and enable the formulation of an empirical relationship between soil texture and soil properties. The permittivities and conductivities increase with increasing clay and silt and decreasing skeleton content. Moreover, with increasing permittivities and conductivities, the wavelet center frequency decreases, whereas the wavelet amplitude increases, which is consistent with the radiation pattern and the antenna coupling characteristics.