This title appears in the Scientific Report : 2014 

Nonword reading and Stroop interference: What differentiates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and reading disability?
Stubenrauch, Christa (Corresponding Author)
Freund, Juliane / Alecu de Flers, Simone / Scharke, Wolfgang / Braun, Mario / Jacobs, Arthur M. / Konrad, Kerstin
Kognitive Neurowissenschaften; INM-3
Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 36 (2014) 3, S. 244 - 260
London [u.a.] Psychology Press66848 2014
10.1080/13803395.2013.878690
Journal Article
(Dys-)function and Plasticity
Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases
Please use the identifier: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2013.878690 in citations.
Background: Attention deficits and impaired reading performance co-occur more often than expected by chance; however, the underlying mechanism of this association still remains rather unexplored. Method: In two consecutive studies, children aged 8 to 12 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with reading disability (RD) were examined using a 2 (ADHD versus no ADHD) × 2 (RD versus no RD) factorial design. To further delineate deficient interference control from reading processes, we used a newly developed self-paced word/nonword reading task (Experiment 1, n = 68) and a modified computerized Stroop paradigm, including an orthographic phonological neighbor (OPN) condition (Experiment 2, n = 84). Results: RD (compared to non-RD groups) was associated with impairments in both word and nonword reading, while children with ADHD also showed impaired nonword reading. In the Stroop task, RD, but not ADHD, had a significant impact on task performance. Interestingly, a significant interaction between ADHD, RD, and task condition emerged, which was due to particularly slower reaction times to nonwords in children with RD only, while task performance in children with comorbid ADHD and RD resembled that of ADHD only. Conclusions: Thus, our results demonstrate that impairments in nonword reading were not specific to RD but were also present in children with ADHD. In addition, RD and not ADHD was characterized by poor interference control in the Stroop task. These findings question whether unique cognitive deficits are specific to either ADHD or RD.