This title appears in the Scientific Report : 2008 

Interactions of Relavistic Heavy Ions in Thick Heavy Element Targets and Some Unresolved Problems
Brandt, R.
Hashemi-Nezhad, S. R. / Odoj, R.
Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik; IEF-6
Physics of particles and nuclei, 39 (2008) S. 259 - 285
Moskva MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica 2008
259 - 285
Journal Article
Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung
Physics of Particles and Nuclei 39
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Interactions of relativistic heavy ions with total energies above 30 GeV in thick Cu and Pb targets (>= 2 cm) have been studied with various techniques. Radiochemical irradiation experiments using thick Cu targets, both in a compact form or as diluted "2 pi-Cu targets" have been carried out with several relativistic heavy ions, such as 44 GeV C-12 (JINR, Dubna, Russia) and 72 GeV Ar-40 (LBL, Berkeley, USA). Neutron measuring experiments using thick targets irradiated with various relativistic heavy ions up to 44 GeV C-12 have been performed at the JINR. In addition, the number of "black prongs" in nuclear interactions (due to protons with energies less than 30 MeV and emitted from the target-like interaction partner at rest) produced with 72 GeV Ne-22 ions in nuclear emulsion plates has been measured in the first nuclear interaction of the primary 22 Ne ion and in the following second nuclear interaction of the secondary heavy (Z > 1) ion. Some essential results have been obtained. (1) Spallation products produced by relativistic secondary fragments in interactions ([44 GeV 12C or 72 GeV Ar-40] + Cu) within thick copper yield fewer products close to the target and many more products far away from the target as compared to primary beam interactions. This applies also to secondary particles emitted into large angles (Theta > 10 degrees). (2) The neutron production of 44 GeV C-12 within thick Cu and Pb targets is beyond the estimated yield as based on experiments with 12 GeV C-12. These rather independent experimental results cannot be understood within well-accepted nuclear reaction models. They appear to present unresolved problems.