This title appears in the Scientific Report : 2011 

The spin structure of magnetic nanoparticles and in magnetic nanostructures
Disch, Sabrina (Corresponding author)
Streumethoden; JCNS-2
Streumethoden; PGI-4
Jülich Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Zentralbibliothek, Verlag 2011
V, 342 S.
RWTH Aachen, Diss., 2010
Großgeräte für die Forschung mit Photonen, Neutronen und Ionen (PNI)
Grundlagen für zukünftige Informationstechnologien
Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich. Schlüsseltechnologien / Key Technologies 21
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The present thesis provides an extensive and original contribution to the investigation of magnetic nanoparticles regarding synthesis and structural characterization using advanced scattering methods in all length scales between the atomic and mesoscopic size range. Particular emphasis is on determination of the magnetic structure of single nanoparticles as well as preparation and characterization of higher dimensional assemblies thereof. The unique physical properties arising from the finite size of magnetic nanoparticles are pronounced for very small particle sizes. With the aim of preparing magnetic nanoparticles suitable for investigation of such properties, a micellar synthesis route for very small cobalt nanoparticles is explored. Cobalt nanoparticles with diameters of less than 3 nm are prepared and characterized, and routes for variation of the particle size are developed. The needs and limitations of primary characterization and handling of such small and oxidation-sensitive nanoparticles are lighlighted and discussed in detail. Comprehensive structural and magnetic characterization is performed on iron oxide nanoparticles of ∼ 10 nm in diameter. Particle size and narrow size distribution are determined with high precision. Investigation of the long range and local atomic structure reveals a particle size dependent magnetite - maghemite structure type with lattice distortions induced at the particle surface. The spatial magnetization distribution within these nanoparticles is determined to be constant in the particle core with a decrease towards the particle surface, thus indicating a magnetic dead layer or spin canting close to the surface. Magnetically induced arrangements of such nanoparticles into higher dimensional assemblies are investigated in solution and by deposition of long range ordered mesocrystals. Both cases reveal a strong dependence of the found structures on the nanoparticle shape (spheres, cubes, and heavily truncated cubes). Nanospheres and nanocubes form closed packed mesocrystals and a short range ordered hard spheres interaction potential in dispersion. In addition, the arrangements of the cuboidal nanoparticles exhibit a strong tendency of face to face oriented attachment, which may result from van der Waals interaction of the cubic facets. Mesocrystals of aged nanocubes with higher degree of truncation reveal a structural transition between the structures of nanocubes and nanospheres.