This title appears in the Scientific Report : 2014 

Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography
Schröder, Gunnar (Corresponding Author)
Levitt, Michael / Brunger, Axel T.
Strukturbiochemie ; ICS-6
Acta crystallographica / D, 70 (2014) 9, S. 2241 - 2255
Copenhagen Munksgaard 2014
25195739
10.1107/S1399004714016496
Journal Article
Structural Biology
Please use the identifier: http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1399004714016496 in citations.
Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.