This title appears in the Scientific Report : 2016 

Physiological and genotype-specific factors associated with grain quality changes in rice exposed to high ozone
Jing, Liquan
Dombinov, Vitalij / Shen, Shibo / Wu, Yanzhen / Yang, Lianxin / Wang, Yunxia / Frei, Michael (Corresponding author)
Pflanzenwissenschaften; IBG-2
Environmental pollution, 210 (2016) S. 397 - 408
Amsterdam [u.a.] Elsevier Science 2016
Journal Article
Plant Science
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Rising tropospheric ozone concentrations in Asia affect the yield and quality of rice. This study investigated ozone-induced changes in rice grain quality in contrasting rice genotypes, and explored the associated physiological processes during the reproductive growth phase. The ozone sensitive variety Nipponbare and a breeding line (L81) containing two tolerance QTLs in Nipponbare background were exposed to 100 ppb ozone (8 h per day) or control conditions throughout their growth. Ozone affected grain chalkiness and protein concentration and composition. The percentage of chalky grains was significantly increased in Nipponbare but not in L81. Physiological measurements suggested that grain chalkiness was associated with a drop in foliar carbohydrate and nitrogen levels during grain filling, which was less pronounced in the tolerant L81. Grain total protein concentration was significantly increased in the ozone treatment, although the albumin fraction (water soluble protein) decreased. The increase in proteinwas more pronounced in L81, due to increases in the glutelin fraction in this genotype. Amino acids responded differently to the ozone treatment. Three essential amino acids (leucine, methionine and threonine) showed significant increases, while seven showed significant treatment by genotype interactions, mostly due to more positive responses in L81. The trend of increased grain protein was in contrast to foliar nitrogen levels, which were negatively affected by ozone. A negative correlation between grain protein and foliar nitrogen in ozone stress indicated that higher grain protein cannot be explained by a concentration effect in all tissues due to lower biomass production. Rather, ozone exposure affected the nitrogen distribution, as indicated by altered foliar activity of the enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism, such as glutamine synthetase and glutamine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. Our results demonstrate differential responses of grain quality to ozone due to the presence of tolerance QTL, and partly explain the underlying physiological processes.