This title appears in the Scientific Report : 2016 

An Energy Concept to Supply the Transport Sector with Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Sources
Robinius, Martin
Schiebahn, Sebastian / Grube, Thomas / Stolten, Detlef
Elektrochemische Verfahrenstechnik; IEK-3
2016
21st World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2016, Zaragoza (Spain), 2016-06-13 - 2016-06-16
Abstract
Electrolysis and Hydrogen
21st World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2016. Zaragoza, Spain. 13-16th June, 2016An Energy Concept to Supply the Transport Sectorwith Hydrogen from Renewable Energy SourcesM. Robinius1*, S. Schiebahn oder T. Grube2 and D. Stolten31Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Electrochemical Process Engineering (IEK-3), D-52425 Jülich, Germany2 Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Electrochemical Process Engineering (IEK-3), D-52425 Jülich, Germany3 Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Electrochemical Process Engineering (IEK-3), D-52425 Jülich, Germany(*) m.robinius@fz-juelich.deTo minimize the anthropogenic impact of the climate system the increase of the global temperature should be below2 degrees Celsius. Therefor all sectors have to be decarbonated to a specific value. In Germany for example thegreenhouse gases have to be decreased overall sectors by 80 to 95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. Hence there is a needfor an energy concept in which not only one sector for example the electrical energy sector is considered. For thisreason the IEK-3 developed an energy concept as well as a model in which two of the biggest sectors in terms ofgreenhouse gases can be implemented: the electrical energy and the transport sector. This paper gives an overviewabout this concept and shows selected results of the model. The concept is driven by the increasing amount of variablerenewable energy sources (VRES). The VRES feed-in from wind turbines and photovoltaic systems depends onweather and is only partially predictable. As a result, to decarbonize this sector the installed capacity of VRES has to beabout the factor 3 over the peak load. This is leading to a changing regime in which the VRES producing temporarilymore energy than is needed from the conventional load as well as can be transported from the electrical grid. Thissurplus energy can be used to produce hydrogen via electrolysis and can then supply the transport sector.Introduction and OverviewThe energy concept relies on a high share of VRES and the so called “power-to-gas” approach. This approach usesthe surplus of the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) to produce hydrogen and oxygen via electrolysis. The hydrogencan then for example been used in the transport sector by fuel cell cars. Schiebahn et al. (2015) [1] and Robinius (2015)[2] showing the potential as well as a technological overview for this approach. While Baufume et al. (2013) [3]describing the calculation for a nationwide German hydrogen pipeline infrastructure Robinius et al. (2014) [4] analyzingthe optimal placement of electrolysis. Both papers and models have no interconnection at all and therefor the goal ofthis paper is to combine both models and show by analyzation of the energy concept the capability of this combination.The Electrical Energy SectorThe model calculates the hourly residual load for 11,268 municipalties in Germany. Therfore the VRES as well as theload has been deatailed analyzed and integrated. Futhermore the high voltage grid (380 and 220 kV) can be considered.Figure 1 shows an example of the installed capacity, theproduced electricity and the full load hours in Germany bythe year 2050 in the model. For this the user has to setinitially the installed capacity and the choosen weather year.Afterwards the model calculates the produced electricity aswell as the residual load for each hour under considerationof the high voltage grid. The residual load will be thencalculated by:87601P P P PDemand ,t RES ,t Im port ,t Export ,tt   Where Demand ,t P is the hourly demand of each municipality,RES ,t P is the hourly production of electricity from all RES,Im port ,t P is the imported power to Germany and Export ,t P isthe exported power from Germany. This means if theresidual load is negative there is suplus energy and if theresidual load is positive there is a need for conventional power plants.Table 1. Sections of the abstract to be changed01000200030004000500060007000050100150200250300350400Full load hours [h]Produced electricity [TWh]Installed capacity [GW]Installed capacity [GW] Produced electricity [TWh]Full load hours [h]Figure 1. Example of the installed capacity, producedelectricity and full load hours by the year 2050in Germany21st World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2016. Zaragoza, Spain. 13-16th June, 2016Figure 2 shows the accumulated residual energy for one year in 11,268 municipalties in Germany with the data from figure 1. The negative residual energy which can be used to produce hydrogen is especially located in the north of Germany. This is due to the high amount of on- and offshore wind which are also located mainly in the north in Germany.The Transport SectorFigure 3 (left) shows the possible amount of fuel cell vehicles in Germany and the summarized hydrogen demand in the model as well as the demand from an agent based model after Keles et al. (2008) [5]. For the model of the IEK-3 among others a geospatial model has been developed which distributes the summarized hydrogend demand to 413 counties in Germany. Therfore different indicators for each county like the GDP was taken into considertation. The peak demand is in the year 2052 with 2.93 million tons. Afterwards the demand decreases because of the more efficient fuel cell cars. Figure 3 (right) shows the location of the electroysis (red stars), the transmission grid (red lines), the distribution grid (black lines) as well as all 9,968 hydrogen fuel stations to supply Germany with hydrogen from RES. Futhermore a detailed econmic analysis waReferences[1] Schiebahn, S., Grube, T., Robinius, M., Tietze, V., Kumar, B., und Stolten, D.; Power to gas: Technological overview, systems analysis and economic assessment for a case study in Germany. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015. 40(12): p. 4285-4294.[2] Robinius, M.; The German Energiewende and the Potential for Power to Gas. 2015. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4569.2641.[3] Baufumé, S., Grüger, F., Grube, T., Krieg, D., Linssen, J., Weber, M., Hake, J.-F., und Stolten, D.; GIS-based scenario calculations for a nationwide German hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2013. 38(10): p. 3813-3829.[4] Robinius, M., Rodriguez, R.A., Kumar, B., Andresen, B., Stein, F.T., Schiebahn, S., und Stolten, D.; Optimal placement of electrolysers in a German power-to-gas infrastructure, in World Hydrogen Energy Conference,2014: Gwangju, Korea.[5] Keles, D., Wietschel, M., Möst, D., und Rentz, O.; Market penetration of fuel cell vehicles – Analysis based on agent behaviour. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2008. 33(16): p. 4444-4455.01230102030402015202020252030203520402045205020552060Hydrogen demand [Mil. t]Fuel Cell Vehicles [Mil. units]BrennstoffzellenfahrzeugeWasserstoffbedarfResidual energy[MWh/km²]-3.000.000 - 2.500-2.500 - -1.700-1.700 - -1200-1.200 - -830-830 - -460-460 - -120-120 - 175175 - 545545 - 1.5351.535 - 50.600Peak H2-demand 2,93 Mil. tFigure 2. Residual energy in 11,268 municipalities in GermanyFigure 3. Left: Quantity of fuel cell cars and hydrogen demand in Germany related to Keles et al. (2008) and IEK3. Right: Dedicated hydrogen pipeline grid to supply the German transport sectorFuel Cell Vehicles Lead Scenario[5] Scenario 3[5] Hydrogend demand Sources Transmission HUBs Distribution Hydrogen fuel stations Counties