This title appears in the Scientific Report : 2017 

Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator
Wolf, R. C. (Corresponding author)
Ali, A. / Alonso, A. / Baldzuhn, J. / Beidler, C. / Beurskens, M. / Biedermann, C. / Bosch, H.-S. / Bozhenkov, S. / Brakel, R. / Dinklage, A. / Feng, Y. / Fuchert, G. / Geiger, J. / Grulke, O. / Helander, P. / Hirsch, M. / Höfel, U. / Jakubowski, M. / Knauer, J. / Kocsis, G. / König, R. / Kornejew, P. / Krämer-Flecken, A. / Krychowiak, M. / Landreman, M. / Langenberg, A. / Laqua, H. P. / Lazerson, S. / Maaßberg, H. / Marsen, S. / Marushchenko, M. / Moseev, D. / Niemann, H. / Pablant, N. / Pasch, E. / Rahbarnia, K. / Schlisio, G. / Stange, T. / Sunn Pedersen, T. / Svensson, J. / Szepesi, T. / Trimino Mora, H. / Turkin, Y. / Wauters, T. / Weir, G. / Wenzel, U. / Windisch, T. / Wurden, G. / Zhang, D. / Abramovic, I. / Äkäslompolo, S. / Aleynikov, P. / Aleynikova, K. / Alzbutas, R. / Anda, G. / Andreeva, T. / Ascasibar, E. / Assmann, J. / Baek, S.-G. / Banduch, M. / Barbui, T. / Barlak, M. / Baumann, K. / Behr, W. / Benndorf, A. / Bertuch, O. / Biel, W. / Birus, D. / Blackwell, B. / Blanco, E. / Blatzheim, M. / Bluhm, T. / Böckenhoff, D. / Bolgert, P. / Borchardt, M. / Borsuk, V. / Boscary, J. / Böttger, L.-G. / Brand, H. / Brandt, Ch. / Bräuer, T. / Braune, H. / Brezinsek, S. / Brunner, K.-J. / Brünner, B. / Burhenn, R. / Buttenschön, B. / Bykov, V. / Calvo, I. / Cannas, B. / Cappa, A. / Carls, A. / Carraro, L. / Carvalho, B. / Castejon, F. / Charl, A. / Chernyshev, F. / Cianciosa, M. / Citarella, R. / Ciupiński, Ł. / Claps, G. / Cole, M. / Cole, M. J. / Cordella, F. / Cseh, G. / Czarnecka, A. / Czermak, A. / Czerski, K. / Czerwinski, M. / Czymek, G. / da Molin, A. / da Silva, A. / Dammertz, G. / Danielson, J. / de la Pena, A. / Degenkolbe, S. / Denner, P. / Dhard, D. P. / Dostal, M. / Drevlak, M. / Drewelow, P. / Drews, Ph. / Dudek, A. / Dundulis, G. / Durodie, F. / van Eeten, P. / Effenberg, F. / Ehrke, G. / Endler, M. / Ennis, D. / Erckmann, E. / Esteban, H. / Estrada, T. / Fahrenkamp, N. / Feist, J.-H. / Fellinger, J. / Fernandes, H. / Fietz, W. H. / Figacz, W. / Fontdecaba, J. / Ford, O. / Fornal, T. / Frerichs, H. / Freund, A. / Führer, M. / Funaba, T. / Galkowski, A. / Gantenbein, G. / Gao, Y. / García Regaña, J. / Garcia-Munoz, M. / Gates, D. / Gawlik, G. / Geiger, B. / Giannella, V. / Gierse, N. / Gogoleva, A. / Goncalves, B. / Goriaev, A. / Gradic, D. / Grahl, M. / Green, J. / Grosman, A. / Grote, H. / Gruca, M. / Guerard, C. / Haiduk, L. / Han, X. / Harberts, F. / Harris, J. H. / Hartfuß, H.-J. / Hartmann, D. / Hathiramani, D. / Hein, B. / Heinemann, B. / Heitzenroeder, P. / Henneberg, S. / Hennig, C. / Hernandez Sanchez, J. / Hidalgo, C. / Hölbe, H. / Hollfeld, K. P. / Hölting, A. / Höschen, D. / Houry, M. / Howard, J. / Huang, X. / Huber, M. / Huber, V. / Hunger, H. / Ida, K. / Ilkei, T. / Illy, S. / Israeli, B. / Ivanov, A. / Jablonski, S. / Jagielski, J. / Jelonnek, J. / Jenzsch, H. / Junghans, P. / Kacmarczyk, J. / Kaliatka, T. / Kallmeyer, J.-P. / Kamionka, U. / Karalevicius, R. / Kasahara, H. / Kasparek, W. / Kenmochi, N. / Keunecke, M. / Khilchenko, A. / Kinna, D. / Kleiber, R. / Klinger, T. / Knaup, M. / Kobarg, Th. / Köchl, F. / Kolesnichenko, Y. / Könies, A. / Köppen, M. / Koshurinov, J. / Koslowski, R. / Köster, F. / Koziol, R. / Krämer, M. / Krampitz, R. / Kraszewsk, P. / Krawczyk, N. / Kremeyer, T. / Krings, Th. / Krom, J. / Krzesinski, G. / Ksiazek, I. / Kubkowska, M. / Kühner, G. / Kurki-Suonio, T. / Kwak, S. / Lang, R. / Langish, S. / Laqua, H. / Laube, R. / Lechte, C. / Lennartz, M. / Leonhardt, W. / Lewerentz, L. / Liang, Y. / Linsmeier, Ch. / Liu, S. / Lobsien, J.-F. / Loesser, D. / Loizu Cisquella, J. / Lore, J. / Lorenz, A. / Losert, M. / Lubyako, L. / Lücke, A. / Lumsdaine, A. / Lutsenko, V. / Majano-Brown, J. / Marchuk, O. / Mardenfeld, M. / Marek, P. / Massidda, S. / Masuzaki, S. / Maurer, D. / McCarthy, K. / McNeely, P. / Meier, A. / Mellein, D. / Mendelevitch, B. / Mertens, Ph. / Mikkelsen, D. / Mishchenko, O. / Missal, B. / Mittelstaedt, J. / Mizuuchi, T. / Mollen, A. / Moncada, V. / Mönnich, T. / Morizaki, T. / Munk, R. / Murakami, S. / Musielok, F. / Náfrádi, G. / Nagel, M. / Naujoks, D. / Neilson, H. / Neubauer, O. / Neuner, U. / Ngo, T. / Nocentini, R. / Nührenberg, C. / Nührenberg, J. / Obermayer, S. / Offermanns, G. / Ogawa, K. / Ongena, J. / Oosterbeek, J. W. / Orozco, G. / Otte, M. / Pacios Rodriguez, L. / Pan, W. / Panadero, N. / Panadero Alvarez, N. / Panin, A. / Papenfuß, D. / Paqay, S. / Pavone, A. / Pawelec, E. / Pelka, G. / Peng, X. / Perseo, V. / Peterson, B. / Pieper, A. / Pilopp, D. / Pingel, S. / Pisano, F. / Plaum, B. / Plunk, G. / Povilaitis, M. / Preinhaelter, J. / Proll, J. / Puiatti, M.-E. / Puig Sitjes, A. / Purps, F. / Rack, M. / Récsei, S. / Reiman, A. / Reiter, D. / Remppel, F. / Renard, S. / Riedl, R. / Riemann, J. / Rimkevicius, S. / Riße, K. / Rodatos, A. / Röhlinger, H. / Romé, M. / Rong, P. / Roscher, H.-J. / Roth, B. / Rudischhauser, L. / Rummel, K. / Rummel, T. / Runov, A. / Rust, N. / Ryc, L. / Ryosuke, S. / Sakamoto, R. / Samartsev, A. / Sanchez, M. / Sano, F. / Satake, S. / Satheeswaran, G. / Schacht, J. / Schauer, F. / Scherer, T. / Schlaich, A. / Schlüter, K.-H. / Schmitt, J. / Schmitz, H. / Schmitz, O. / Schmuck, S. / Schneider, M. / Schneider, W. / Scholz, M. / Scholz, P. / Schrittwieser, R. / Schröder, M. / Schröder, T. / Schroeder, R. / Schumacher, H. / Schweer, B. / Shanahan, B. / Shikhovtsev, I. V. / Sibilia, M. / Sinha, P. / Sipliä, S. / Skodzik, J. / Slaby, C. / Smith, H. / Spiess, W. / Spong, D. A. / Spring, A. / Stadler, R. / Standley, B. / Stephey, L. / Stoneking, M. / Stridde, U. / Sulek, Z. / Surko, C. / Suzuki, Y. / Szabó, V. / Szabolics, T. / Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z. / Tamura, N. / Terra, A. / Terry, J. / Thomas, J. / Thomsen, H. / Thumm, M. / von Thun, C. P. / Timmermann, D. / Titus, P. / Toi, K. / Travere, J. M. / Traverso, P. / Tretter, J. / Tsuchiya, H. / Tsujimura, T. / Tulipán, S. / Turnyanskiy, M. / Unterberg, B. / Urban, J. / Urbonavicius, E. / Vakulchyk, I. / Valet, S. / van Millingen, B. / Vela, L. / Velasco, J.-L. / Vergote, M. / Vervier, M. / Vianello, N. / Viebke, H. / Vilbrandt, R. / Vorkörper, A. / Wadle, S. / Wagner, F. / Wang, E. / Wang, N. / Warmer, F. / Wegener, L. / Weggen, J. / Wei, Y. / Wendorf, J. / Werner, A. / Wiegel, B. / Wilde, F. / Winkler, E. / Winters, V. / Wolf, S. / Wolowski, J. / Wright, A. / Xanthopoulos, P. / Yamada, H. / Yamada, I. / Yasuhara, R. / Yokoyama, M. / Zajac, J. / Zarnstorff, M. / Zeitler, A. / Zhang, H. / Zhu, J. / Zilker, M. / Zimbal, A. / Zocco, A. / Zoletnik, S. / Zuin, M.
Plasmaphysik; IEK-4
Zentralinstitut für Technologie; ZEA-1
Nuclear fusion, 57 (2017) 10, S. 102020 -
Vienna IAEA 2017
10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d
Journal Article
Helmholtz Interdisciplinary Doctoral Training in Energy and Climate Research (HITEC)
Plasma-Wall-Interaction
OpenAccess
OpenAccess
Please use the identifier: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d in citations.
Please use the identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/2128/15743 in citations.
After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3  ×  1019 m−3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.