Carl Friedrich Gauss

Portrait by [[Christian Albrecht Jensen]], 1840 (copy from Gottlieb Biermann, 1887)<ref>{{cite journal | author-last = Axel D. Wittmann | author-first = Inna V. Oreshina | title = On Jensen's Paintings of C. F. Gauss | journal = Mitteilungen der Gauss-Gesellschaft | issue = 46 | pages = 57–61 | year = 2009 | url = http://www.gauss-gesellschaft-goettingen.de/mitteil.html#2009}}</ref> Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss ( ; ; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician, astronomer, geodesist, and physicist who contributed to many fields in mathematics and science. He ranks among history's most influential mathematicians and has been referred to as the "Prince of Mathematicians". He was director of the Göttingen Observatory and professor for astronomy for nearly half a century, from 1807 until his death in 1855.

While still a student at the University of Göttingen, he propounded several mathematical theorems. Gauss completed his masterpieces ''Disquisitiones Arithmeticae'' and ''Theoria motus corporum coelestium'' as a private scholar. He gave the second and third complete proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebra, made contributions to number theory, and developed the theories of binary and ternary quadratic forms. He is considered one of the discoverers of non-Euclidean geometry alongside Nikolai Lobachevsky and János Bolyai and coined that term.

Gauss was instrumental in the identification of the newly discovered Ceres as a dwarf planet. His work on the motion of planetoids disturbed by large planets led to the introduction of the Gaussian gravitational constant and the method of least squares, which he had discovered before Adrien-Marie Legendre published on the method.

Gauss was in charge of the extensive geodetic survey of the Kingdom of Hanover together with an arc measurement project from 1820 to 1844, did much of the fieldwork, and provided the complete scientific evaluation. Furthermore, he was one of the founders of geophysics while formulating the fundamental principles of magnetism, and did basic practical research in this field. Fruits of his practical works were the inventions of the heliotrope in 1821, a magnetometer in 1833 and, alongside Wilhelm Eduard Weber, the first electromagnetic telegraph in 1833.

Gauss was a careful author who refused to publish incomplete work, and although having published extensively during his life, he left behind several works to be edited posthumously. He believed that the act of learning, not possession of knowledge, provided the greatest enjoyment. Gauss confessed to dislike teaching, but some of his students became influential mathematicians. Provided by Wikipedia
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Disquisitiones arithmeticae.
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Abhandlungen zur Methode der kleinsten Quadrate /
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Carl Friedrich Gauss Werke. 3.
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Other Personal Name(s): ...Gauss, Carl Friedrich....