This title appears in the Scientific Report : 2015 

Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention
Buzi, Luxherta (Corresponding author)
Temmerman, Greg De / Unterberg, Bernhard / Reinhart, Michael / Litnovsky, Andrey / Philipps, V. / Van Oost, Guido / Möller, Sören
Plasmaphysik; IEK-4
Journal of nuclear materials, 455 (2014) 1-3, S. 316 - 319
Amsterdam [u.a.] Elsevier Science 2014
Journal Article
Helmholtz Interdisciplinary Doctoral Training in Energy and Climate Research (HITEC)
Electrochemical Storage
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Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER – relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER – like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux densities (high: 3.5–7 · 1023 D+/m2 s and low: 9 · 1021 D+/m2 s). Particle fluence and ion energy, respectively 1026 D+/m2 and ∼38 eV were kept constant in all cases.The experiments were performed at three different surface temperatures 530 K, 630 K and 870 K. Experimental results concerning the deuterium retention and surface modifications of low flux exposure confirmed previous investigations. At temperatures 530 K and 630 K, deuterium retention was higher at lower flux density due to the longer exposure time (steady state plasma operation) and a consequently deeper diffusion range. At 870 K, deuterium retention was found to be higher at high flux density according to the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements. While blisters were completely absent at low flux density, small blisters of about 40–50 nm were formed at high flux density exposure. At the given conditions, a relation between deuterium retention and blister formation has been found which has to be considered in addition to deuterium trapping in defects populated by diffusion.